Fluoride as Mass Medication Drug – Impact

The fluoride chemical used in water fluoridation (hydrofluorosilicic acid – H2SiF6) is not a pure substance, is dispensed as a drug in the water and the specific fluoride used is not approved as a drug. Peel Council, Ontario, Canada, decided to take the matter to a higher level and basically ask that a drug number be obtained for this chemical from Health Canada.

A drug identification number (DIN) allows a manufacturer to market products in Canada and serves as a tool to help in the follow-up on products on the market, recall of products, inspections, and quality monitoring. Hydrofluorosilicic acid is obviously used as a drug as any sensible person can see. Why does this acid not have such a drug approval number?

At Thursday’s January 12, 2012 meeting, a motion was made that states that the classification of fluoride as a drug be based on at least one long-term toxicology study to determine health impacts on humans. (http://www.bramptonguardian.com/news/news/article/1278444, Jan 12, 2012). A comparison to the slant put on the decision that was made in the Report to City Council is at odds with the actual request by Peel. Peel Council however failed to apply the Precautionary Principle by not asking for a moratorium on the use of this acid as a drug.

Please note the extensive research at the end of this letter, and this only on bone, convincing proof that the weight of evidence shows that there exists adverse health effects from exposure to fluoride chemicals.

At least 17 studies have failed to show any significant benefit to teeth from fluoridation in the last few decades. Caries rates are at an all time low and are falling whether a country is fluoridated or not; there’s proof from the World Health Organization in a graph from a report published by the WHO reproduced here: http://ffo-olf.org/usefulFluorideUseCharts.html#2. More than half of our kids are cavity free even in non-fluoridated areas! That means starting fluoridation or maintaining it will HAVE NO EFFECT AT ALL on the majority of kids, but will disfigure the teeth of 40% of them with dental fluorosis; see this official graph from the U.S. CDC/NCHS reproduced here: http://ffo-olf.org/usefulFluorideUseCharts.html#4. These are facts, not endorsements or vacuous claims.

Don’t let public health bureaucrats tell you there are benefits to fluoridation, that fluoridation poses no danger,  or that fluoridation poses no health risks: ask that written proof be submitted: they are not experts on fluoridation but health care management specialists and as such do not qualify to advise on fluoridation.

You’ve heard the following before, but I remind you of this again. Over 25 studies have clearly shown a reduction of IQ among children from high doses and long term low dose fluoride chemical ingestion and exposure. Do you care that you are responsible for the lowering of our children’s IQs by water fluoridation?

No one can avoid fluoridated water once this acid is put in the water supply. This is truly an overarching ethical and moral issue. How can any city implement this or continue to do this? And how dare any city use industrial waste as a drug product for mass medication? Why is THIS concern not being properly addressed?

The medical officers of health and their staff need to do due diligence and stop using hand-me-down statements to close the debate on this subject. You, as a concerned and dedicated citizen or Councillor can provide them with the science that supports what is claimed for cessation of fluoridation. Please take that responsibility that is yours.

Informed elected municipal representatives across Canada and in all fluoridating countries across the world are now learning more about fluoridation to make carefully considered decisions. Is it not time for this Council to do the same?

Do you not think that it is important that all Councillors have ALL the information needed to make the right decision, not just assurances, endorsements, and dubious and misleading marketing?

Here is my list of top 12 concerns that you and the public should know about.

    1. As a direct result of fluoridation at least every 4 out of ten children have a permanent disfiguring, or esthetically objectionable tooth discoloration called dental fluorosis.
    2. Treating dental fluorosis costs enormously more than the dental repair expenses that fluoridation is supposed to prevent.
    3. Dental fluorosis affects Blacks and Hispanics more than whites and this has become a civil rights issue in the US.
    4. Dental fluorosis has been found to be associated with other health problems, such as lowered IQ, Alzheimer’s, dementia, thyroid dysfunction, arthritis, fertility problems, cancer, to name just a few (see extensive references on bone diseases below): this is evidently contrary to denials by health bureaucrats, but nonetheless very real and verifiable.
    5. Using fluoridated tap water to make up infant formula and reconstituted foods dramatically increases dental fluorosis in children that are thus fed.
    6. The chemicals used for fluoridation are fluorosilicates that have never been approved by Health Canada for use in foods, beverages or as a water additive.
    7. Fluorosilicates contain dangerous cancer causing and neurotoxic contaminants because they are unpurified industrial toxic waste chemicals collected from the smoke stack scrubbers of super phosphate fertilizer factories. This was irrevocably confirmed in a meeting of the Windsor Utilities Commission. Video evidence of this is available here: http://youtube.com/watch?v=UKFuChX1Yl8: 2 minutes 23 seconds. Is this not admissible evidence?
    8. Fluorosilicates increase blood and tissue lead levels in growing children and has known neurotoxic effects.
    9. Long term (chronic) ingestion of fluoride accumulates throughout life in bones, tendons and cartilage, increasing joint pain and bone fracture in the whole population: consider the health costs.

A minority of people in the population either retain too much fluoride or ingest too much fluoride and are negatively affected because of that.

  1. Fluoride is absorbed through the skin when bathing, washing or showering and breathed into your lungs when showering, and in steam saunas dramatically increasing exposure.
  2. There are looming legal liability consequences for Councillors and the Mayor of Cities concerning water treatment looming due to legislation that has come into force as of January 2013.

Millions of people in North American communities will no longer be forcibly medicated with synthetic fluoride chemicals: 24 Canadian communities ended their water fluoridation programs since 2011:

  1. Muskoka (ON), Oct 21, 2013. Huntsville Forester
  2. Roblin (MB), Feb 26, 2013.
  3. Lasalle (ON), Jan 28, 2013
  4. Windsor (ON), Jan 28, 2013. Windsor Star.
  5. Bécancour (QC), voted Dec. 2102, confirmed Jan. 14, 2013.
  6. Kirkland lake (ON), Dec 5, 2012 Kirkland Lake Ends Fluoridation
  7. Rosetown (SK), Aug 17, 2012.
  8. Orillia (ON), Jul 16, 2012.
  9. Okotoks (AB), Apr 23, 2012 Okotoks Online
  10. Tecumseh (ON), Oct 7, 2013.
  11. Wynyard (SK), Mar 1, 2012.
  12. Amherstburg (ON), Feb 6, 2012
  13. Moncton, Riverview, Dieppe (NB), Dec 19, 2011
  14. Williams Lake (BC), Nov 21, 2011
  15. Lake Cowichan (BC), Nov 21, 2011
  16. Lakeshore (ON), Oct 29, 2011
  17. Churchill (MB), Oct 18 2011
  18. Slave Lake (AB), voted out on Tue Sep 6, 2011, ended Oct 1, 2011
  19. Taber (AB), Jul, 20, 2011
  20. Meadow Lake (SK), voted out Jul 4, 2011 ended Jul 27, 2011
  21. Flin Flon (MB), Jun 2011
  22. Calgary (AB), voted out Feb 8, 2011, ended May 18, 2011
  23. Verchères (QC), Feb 7, 2011
  24. Airdrie, (AB), Feb 2011

SOURCE: (http://ffo-olf.org/end.html).

From towns and cities in Canada and the U.S., for over 1.4 million residents, fluoridation has finally ended. The truth about fluoridation is inexorably spreading.

It’s time you looked at some way to bring an end to this barbaric, useless and wasteful practice as others are doing across the country. We need to improve the quality of out tap water by eliminating the addition of this highly hazardous, toxic fluoride industrial chemical waste chemical stew into an already purified water distribution system.

Respectfully yours,
Richard Hudon
3755 Loch Garry Rd
Apple Hill, K0C 1B0
613-527-2589 – text only: 613-852-8692
We have the science, all they have is endorsements and studies consider fluoride but not fluoridation itself and not the actual contaminant used in fluoridation.

Evidence of Damage to Bones.
Please note that all of the research reported below was done using mainly Sodium Fluoride (NaF), very few using Calcium Fluoride (CaF), but never the extremely more deleterious Hydrofluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6).
IV. FLUORIDE & BONE

Endemic fluorosis

  1. Azar HA, et al. (1961). Skeletal fluorosis due to chronic fluoride intoxication. Annals of Internal Medicine 55:193-200.
  2. Barot VV. (1998). Occurrence of endemic fluorosis in human population of North Gujarat, India: human health risk. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 61: 303-10.
  3. Bo Z, et al. (2003). Distribution and risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water in the west plain region of Jilin province, China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 25(4): 421-31. (See abstract)
  4. Boyle DR, Chagnon M. (1995). An incidence of skeletal fluorosis associated with groundwaters of the maritime carboniferous basin, Gaspe region, Quebec, Canada. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 17: 5-12.
  5. Bruns BR, Tytle T. (1988). Skeletal fluorosis: a report of two cases. Orthopedics 11: 1083-1087. (See abstract)
  6. Cao J, et al. (2003). Brick tea fluoride as a main source of adult fluorosis. Food and Chemical Toxicology 41(4):535-42. (See abstract)
  7. Choubisa SL, et al. (2001). Endemic fluorosis in Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Environmental Health 43:177-89. (See abstract)
  8. Christie DP. (1980). The spectrum of radiographic bone changes in children with fluorosis. Radiology 136(1):85-90. (See abstract)
  9. Cook HA. (1971). Fluoride studies in a patient with arthritis. The Lancet 1: 817. (See study)
  10. Dhuna AK, et al. (1992). Skeletal fluorosis. An unusual cause of progressive radiculomyelopathy. Spine 17:842-4.
  11. Faccini JM, Teotia SPS. (1974). Histopathological assessment of endemic skeletal fluorosis. Calcified Tissue Research 16: 45-57.
  12. Felsenfeld AJ, Roberts MA. (1991). A report of fluorosis in the United States secondary to drinking well water. Journal of the American Medical Association 265:486-8. (See abstract)
  13. Fisher JR, et al. (1981). Skeletal fluorosis from eating soil. Arizona Medicine 38: 833-5. (See abstract)
  14. Fisher RL, et al. (1989). Endemic fluorosis with spinal cord compression. A case report and review. Archives of Internal Medicine 149: 697-700. (See abstract)
  15. Gilbaugh JH, Thompson GJ. (1966). Fluoride osteosclerosis simulating carcinoma of the prostate with widespread bony metastasis: a case report. Journal of Urology 96: 944-946.
  16. Goldman SM, et al. (1971). Radiculomyelopathy in a southwestern indian due to skeletal fluorosis. Arizona Medicine 28: 675-677.
  17. Gupta RK, et al. (1996). Compressive myelopathy in fluorosis. Neuroradiology 38: 338-342. (See abstract)
  18. Haimanot RT. (1990). Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, with special emphasis on radiculo-myelopathy. Paraplegia 28:244-51. (See abstract)
  19. Hileman B. (1988). Fluoridation of water. Questions about health risks and benefits remain after more than 40 years. Chemical and Engineering News August 1. 26-42. (See excerpt)
  20. Johnson W, et al. (1979). Fluoridation and bone disease in renal patients. In: E Johansen, DR Taves, TO Olsen, Eds. Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides. AAAS Selected Symposium. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. pp. 275-293. (See extended excerpt)
  21. Jolly SS, et al. (1973). Endemic fluorosis in Punjab: 1. skeletal aspect. Fluoride 6: 4-18.
  22. Jolly SS. (1970). Hydric fluorosis in Punjab. In: TL Vischer, ed. (1970). Fluoride in Medicine. Hans Huber, Bern. pp. 106-121.
  23. Jolly SS. (1968). An epidemiological, clinical and biochemical study of endemic, dental and skeletal fluorosis in Punjab. Fluoride 1(2): 65-75.
  24. Juncos LI, Donadio JV Jr. (1972). Renal failure and fluorosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 222(7):783-5. (See abstract)
  25. Kilborn LG, et al. (1950). Fluorosis with report of an advanced case. Canadian Medical Association Journal 62: 135-141.
  26. Krishnamachari KA. (1986). Skeletal fluorosis in humans: a review of recent progress in the understanding of the disease. Progress in Food and Nutrition Sciences 10(3-4):279-314. (See abstract)
  27. Krishnamachari KA, Krishnaswamy K. (1973). Genu valgum and osteoporosis in an area of endemic fluorosis. The Lancet. 2(7834): 877-879. (See abstract)
  28. Kumar SP, Harper RA. (1963). Fluorosis in Aden. British Journal of Radiology 36: 497-502.
  29. Lantz O, et al. (1987). Fluoride-induced chronic renal failure. American Journal of Kidney Disorders 10:136-9. (See abstract)
  30. Latham MC, Grech P. (1967). The effects of excessive fluoride intake. American Journal of Public Health 57: 651-660.
  31. Leone NC, Stevenson CA, Hilbish TF, Sosman MC. (1955). A roentgenologic study of a human population exposed to high-fluoride domestic water: a ten year study. American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy and Nuclear Medicine 74: 874-885.
  32. Lian ZC, Wu EH. (1986). Osteoporosis–an early radiographic sign of endemic fluorosis. Skeletal Radiology 15(5):350-3. (See abstract)
  33. Linsman JF, McMurray CA. (1943). Fluoride osteosclerosis from drinking water. Radiology 40: 474-484.
  34. Littleton J. (1999). Paleopathology of skeletal fluorosis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 109(4):465-83. (See abstract)
  35. Lyth O. (1946). Endemic fluorosis in Kweichow, China. The Lancet 1: 233-235.
  36. Misra UK, et al. (1988). Endemic fluorosis presenting as cervical cord compression. Archives of Environmental Health 43:18-21. (See abstract)
  37. Mithal A, et al. (1993). Radiological spectrum of endemic fluorosis: relationship with calcium intake. Skeletal Radiology 22(4):257-61. (See abstract)
  38. Morris JW. (1965). Skeletal fluorosis among indians of the American Southwest. American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy & Nuclear Medicine 94: 608-615.
  39. Muthukumar N. (2005). Ossification of the ligamentum flavum as a result of fluorosis causing myelopathy: report of two cases. Neurosurgery 56: 622. (See abstract)
  40. Pandit CG, et al. (1940). Endemic fluorosis in South India. Indian Journal of Medical Research 28: 533-558.
  41. Pinet A, Pinet F. (1968). Endemic fluorosis in the Sahara. Fluoride 1(2): 85-93.
  42. Sauerbrunn BJ, et al. (1965). Chronic fluoride intoxication with fluorotic radiculomyelopathy. Annals of Internal Medicine 63: 1074-1078.
  43. Savas S, et al. (2001). Endemic fluorosis in Turkish patients: relationship with knee osteoarthritis. Rheumatology International 21(1):30-5. (See abstract )
  44. Shortt HE, et al. (1937). Endemic fluorosis in the Madras presidency. Indian Journal of Medical Research 25: 553-568.
  45. Siddiqui AH. (1970). Neurological complications of skeletal fluorosis with special reference to lesions in the cervical region. Fluoride 3: 91-96.
  46. Siddiqui AH. (1955). Fluorosis in Nalgonda district, Hyderabad-Deccan. British Medical Journal ii (Dec 10): 1408-1413.
  47. Singh A, Jolly SS. (1970). Chronic toxic effects on the skeletal system. In: Fluorides and Human Health. World Health Organization.
  48. Singh A, et al. (1963). Endemic fluorosis. Epidemiological, clinical and biochemical study of chronic fluoride intoxication in Punjab. Medicine. 42: 229-246.
  49. Singh A, et al. (1961). Skeletal fluorosis and its neurological complications. Lancet 1: 197-200.
  50. Soriano, M. (1968). Periostitis deformans due to wine fluorosis. Fluoride 1: 56-64.
  51. Stevenson CA, Watson R. (1957). Fluoride osteosclerosis. American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy and Nuclear Medicine 78: 13-18.
  52. Susheela AK, Bhatnagar M. (2002). Reversal of fluoride induced cell injury through elimination of fluoride and consumption of diet rich in essential nutrients and antioxidants. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 234-235(1-2):335-40. (See abstract)
  53. Susheela AK, et al. (1993). Prevalence of endemic fluorosis with gastro-intestinal manifestations in people living in some North-Indian villages. Fluoride 26(2): 97-104. (See abstract)
  54. Teotia M, Teotia SP, Singh KP. (1998). Endemic chronic fluoride toxicity and dietary calcium deficiency interaction syndromes of metabolic bone disease and deformities in India: year 2000. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 65:371-81. (See abstract)
  55. Teotia SPS, et al. (1976). Symposium on the non-skeletal phase of chronic fluorosis: the joints. Fluoride 9(1): 19-24. (See paper)
  56. Teotia M, Teotia SPS. (1973). Further observations on endemic fluoride-induced osteopathies in children. Fluoride 6: 143-151.
  57. UNICEF Water, Environment & Sanitation. (1999). Fluoride in water: An overview. Waterfront December. (See report)
  58. Xu RQ, et al. (1997). Relations between environment and endemic fluorosis in Hohot region, Inner Mongolia. Fluoride 30: 26-28
  59. Waldbott GL. (1956). Incipient fluorine intoxication from drinking water. Acta Medica Scandinavica 156: 157-168. (See summary)
  60. Wang W, et al. (2004). Ossification of the transverse atlantal ligament associated with fluorosis: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Spine 29 :E75-8. (See abstract)
  61. Wang Y, et al. (1994). Endemic fluorosis of the skeleton: radiographic features in 127 patients. American Journal of Roentgenology 162(1):93-8. (See abstract).
  62. Webb-Peploe MM, Bradley WG. (1966). Endemic fluorosis with neurological complications in a Hampshire man. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 29:577-583.
  63. Whyte MP, et al. (2005). Skeletal fluorosis and instant tea. American Journal of Medicine 118:78-82. (See press release)
  64. Yang L, et al. (2003). Developing environmental health indicators as policy tools for endemic fluorosis management in the People’s Republic of China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 25(3):281-95. (See abstract)
  65. Zhavoronkov AA. (1977). [Non-skeletal forms of fluorosis]. Arkh Patol. 39(3):83-91. (See abstract)

See also: Fluoride Action Network. (2004). Fluorosis in India: Recent Reports. http://fluoridealert.org/articles/science-watch02/

Occupational Fluorosis

  1. Boillat MA, et al. (1980). Radiological criteria of industrial fluorosis. Skeletal Radiology 5: 161-165.
  2. Carnow BW, Conibear SA. (1981). Industrial fluorosis. Fluoride 14(4): 172-181. (See study)
  3. Czerwinski E, et al. (1988). Bone and joint pathology in fluoride-exposed workers. Archives of Environmental Health 43(5):340-3. (See abstract)
  4. Czerwinski E, Lankosz W. (1978). Skeletal changes in industrial and endemic fluorosis. Fluoride 11(1):29-32. (See study).
  5. Czerwinski E, Lankosz W. (1977). Fluoride-induced changes in 60 retired aluminum workers. Fluoride 10(3): 125-136. (See study)
  6. Derryberry OM, et al. (1963). Fluoride exposure and worker health. Archives of Environmental Health 6: 503-514.
  7. Franke J, et al. (1975). Industrial fluorosis. Fluoride 8(2): 61-83.
  8. Grandjean P. (1982). Occupational fluorosis through 50 years: clinical and epidemiological experiences. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 3(2):227-36. (See abstract)
  9. Hodge HC, Smith FA. (1979). Occupational fluoride exposure. Journal of Occupational Medicine 19: 12-39.
  10. Kaltreider NL, et al. (1972). Health survey of aluminum workers with special reference to fluoride exposure. Journal of Occupational Medicine 14(7): 531-541.
  11. Moller PF, Gudjonsson SV. (1932). Massive fluorosis of bones and ligaments. Acta Radiology 13:269-294.
  12. Roholm K. (1937). Fluoride intoxication: a clinical-hygienic study with a review of the literature and some experimental investigations. H.K. Lewis Ltd, London.
  13. Runge H, Franke J. (1989). Radiological modifications of the skeletal system among aluminum smelter workers: A 15 year retrospective study. Fluoride 22: 157-164. (See study)
  14. Tartatovskaya LY, et al. (1995). Clinico-hygiene assessment of the combined effect on the body of vibration and fluorine. Noise and Vibration Bulletin 263-264.
  15. Waldbott GL, Cecilioni VA. (1969). Neighborhood fluorosis. Fluoride 2: 206-213. (See study)
  16. Zhiliang Y, et al. (1987). Industrial fluoride pollution in the metallurgical industry in China. Fluoride 20(3): 118-125. (See study)

Livestock Fluorosis

  1. Griffith-Jones W. (1977). Fluorosis in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Record 100: 84-89. (See abstract)
  2. Huffman WT. (1949). Effects on livestock of air contamination caused by fluoride fumes. pp. 59-63. In: Air Pollution. Proceedings of the United States Technical Conference on Air Pollution. McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York.
  3. Krook L, Maylin GA. (1979). Industrial fluoride pollution. Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle. Cornell Veterinarian 69(Suppl 8): 1-70. (See abstract)
  4. Lillie RJ. (1970). Air Pollutants Affecting the Performance of Domestic Animals: A Literature Review. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Agricultural Handbook No. 380. Washington D.C.
  5. National Academy of Sciences. (1960). The fluorosis problem in livestock production. Committee on Animal Nutrition, Agricultural Board. Washington DC.
  6. Roholm K. (1937). Fluoride intoxication: a clinical-hygienic study with a review of the literature and some experimental investigations. H.K. Lewis Ltd, London.
  7. Schmidt HJ, Rand WE. (1952). A critical study of the literature on fluoride toxicology with respect to cattle damage. American Journal of Veterinary Research 13: 39-48.
  8. Shupe JL, Olson AE. (1971). Clinical aspects of fluorosis in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Association 158: 167-174. (See study)
  9. Shupe JL, et al. (1963). The effect of fluorine on dairy cattle II. Clinical and pathologic effects. American Journal of Veterinary Research 24: 964-979.
  10. Suttie JW. (1977). Effects of fluoride on livestock. Journal of Occupational Medicine 19: 40-48.

Fluoride & Bone Strength: Animal Studies

  1. Bohatyrewicz A. (1999). Effects of fluoride on mechanical properties of femoral bone in growing rats. Fluoride 32: 47-54. (See abstract)
  2. Burnell TW, et al. (1986). Effect of dietary fluorine on growth, blood and bone characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 63: 2053-67. (See abstract)
  3. Carter DR, Beaupre GS. (1990). Effects of fluoride treatment on bone strength. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5 Suppl 1:S177-84. (See abstract)
  4. Gedalia I, et al. (1964). Effects of estrogen on bone composition in rats at low and high fluoride intake. Endocrinology 75: 201-205. (See abstract)
  5. Giavaresi G, et al. (1999). The mechanical properties of fluoride-treated bone in the ovariectomized rat. Calcified Tissue International 65: 237-41. (See abstract)
  6. Lafage MH, et al. (1995). Comparison of alendronate and sodium fluoride effects on cancellous and cortical bone in minipigs. A one-year study. Journal of Clinical Investigation 95: 2127-33. (See abstract)
  7. Mosekilde L, et al. (1987). Compressive strength, ash weight, and volume of vertebral trabecular bone in experimental fluorosis in pigs. Calcified Tissue International 40: 318-22. (See abstract)
  8. Riggins RS, et al. (1976). The effect of fluoride supplementation on the strength of osteopenic bone. Clinical Orthopaedics (114):352-7. (See abstract)
  9. Riggins RS, et al. (1974). The Effects of Sodium Fluoride on Bone Breaking Strength. Calcified Tissue Research 14: 283-289. (See abstract)
  10. Silva MJ, Ulrich SR. (2000). In vitro sodium fluoride exposure decreases torsional and bending strength and increases ductility of mouse femora. Journal of Biomechanics 33(2):231-4. (See abstract)
  11. Sogaard CH, et al. (1995). Effects of fluoride on rat vertebral body biomechanical competence and bone mass. Bone 16(1): 163-9. (See abstract)
  12. Turner CH, et al. (2001). Combined effects of diets with reduced calcium and phosphate and increased fluoride intake on vertebral bone strength and histology in rats. Calcified Tissue International 69(1):51-7. (See abstract)
  13. Turner CH, et al. (1997). Fluoride treatment increased serum IGF-1, bone turnover, and bone mass, but not bone strength, in rabbits. Calcified Tissue International 61(1):77-83. (See abstract)
  14. Turner CH, et al. (1996). High fluoride intakes cause osteomalacia and diminished bone strength in rats with renal deficiency. Bone 19(6):595-601.(See abstract)
  15. Turner CH, et al. (1996). Reductions in bone strength after fluoride treatment are not reflected in tissue-level acoustic measurements. Bone 19(6):603-7. (See abstract)
  16. Turner CH, et al. (1995). Fluoride reduces bone strength in older rats. Journal of Dental Research 74(8):1475-81. (See abstract)
  17. Turner CH, Dunipace AJ. (1993). On fluoride and bone strength (letter). Calcified Tissue International 53: 289-290.
  18. Turner CH, et al. (1992). The effects of fluoridated water on bone strength. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 10(4):581-7. (See abstract)
  19. Walsh WR, Guzelsu N. (1993). The role of ions and mineral-organic interfacial bonding on the compressive properties of cortical bone. Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering 3: 75-84. (See abstract)
  20. Wolinsky I, et al. (1972). Effects of fluoride on metabolism and mechanical properties of rat bone. American Journal of Physiology 223(1): 46-50. (See abstract)

Fluoride & Bone Fracture: Human Clinical Trials

  1. Bayley TA, et al. (1990). Fluoride-induced fractures: relation to osteogenic effect. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5(Suppl 1):S217-22. (See abstract)
  2. Dambacher MA, et al. (1986). Long-term fluoride therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone 7: 199-205. (See abstract
  3. Gerster JC, et al. (1983). Bilateral fractures of femoral neck in patients with moderate renal failure receiving fluoride for spinal osteoporosis. British Medical Journal (Clin Res Ed) 287(6394):723-5. (See abstract)
  4. Gutteridge DH, et al. (2002). A randomized trial of sodium fluoride (60 mg) +/- estrogen in postmenopausal osteoporotic vertebral fractures: increased vertebral fractures and peripheral bone loss with sodium fluoride; concurrent estrogen prevents peripheral loss, but not vertebral fractures. Osteoporosis International 13(2):158-70. (See abstract)
  5. Gutteridge DH, et al. (1990). Spontaneous hip fractures in fluoride-treated patients: potential causative factors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5 Suppl 1:S205-15. (See abstract)
  6. Haguenauer D, et al. (2000). Fluoride for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic fractures: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International 11(9):727-38. (See abstract)
  7. Hedlund LR, Gallagher JC. (1989). Increased incidence of hip fracture in osteoporotic women treated with sodium fluoride. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 4:223-5. (See abstract)
  8. Inkovaara J, et al. (1975). Prophylactic fluoride treatment and aged bones. British Medical Journal 3(5975):73-4. (See abstract)
  9. Kleerekoper M, et al. (1991). A randomized trial of sodium fluoride as a treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporosis International 1(3):155-61. (See abstract)
  10. Meunier PJ, et al. (1998). Fluoride salts are no better at preventing new vertebral fractures than calcium-vitamin D in postmenopausal osteoporosis: the FAVOStudy. Osteoporosis International 8: 4-12. (See abstract)
  11. National Research Council. (2006). Musculoskeletal Effects. In: Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. (See chapter)
  12. O’Duffy JD, et al. (1986). Mechanism of acute lower extremity pain syndrome in fluoride-treated osteoporotic patients. American Journal of Medicine 80: 561-6. (See abstract)
  13. Orcel P, et al. (1990). Stress fractures of the lower limbs in osteoporotic patients treated with fluoride. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5(Suppl 1): S191-4. (See abstract)
  14. Orcel P, et al. (1987). [Spontaneous fissures and fractures of the legs in patients with osteoporosis treated with sodium fluoride]. Presse Med. 16: 571-5. (See abstract)
  15. Pak CY, et al. (1996). Comparison of nonrandomized trials with slow-release sodium fluoride with a randomized placebo-controlled trial in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11(2):160-8. (See abstract)
  16. Pak CY, et al. (1995). Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with slow-release sodium fluoride. Final report of a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 123: 401-8. (See abstract)
  17. Riggs BL, et al. (1990). Effect of Fluoride treatment on the Fracture Rates in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis. New England Journal of Medicine 322:802-809. (See abstract)
  18. Rubin CD, et al. (2001). Sustained-release sodium fluoride in the treatment of the elderly with established osteoporosis. Archives of Internal Medicine 161(19):2325-33. (See abstract)
  19. Schnitzler CM, et al. (1990). Bone fragility of the peripheral skeleton during fluoride therapy for osteoporosis. Clinical Orthopaedics (261):268-75. (See abstract)
  20. Schnitzler CM, Solomon L. (1985). Trabecular stress fractures during fluoride therapy for osteoporosis. Skeletal Radioliology 14(4):276-9. (See abstract)

Fluoride & Bone Fracture: Epidemiological Studies
a) Studies reporting association between fluoridated water (< 1.2 ppm fluoride) & hip fracture.

  1. Cooper C, et al. (1990). Water fluoride concentration and fracture of the proximal femur. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 44: 17-19.
  2. Cooper C, et al. (1991). Water fluoridation and hip fracture. Letter. Journal of the American Medical Association 266: 513-514. (A reanalysis of data presented in 1990 paper). (See letter)
  3. Danielson C, et al. (1992). Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah’s elderly population. Journal of the American Medical Association 268(6): 746-748. (See abstract)
  4. Hegmann KT, et al. (2000). The effects of fluoridation on degenerative joint disease (DJD) and hip Fractures. Abstract # 71 of the 33rd annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiological Research. American Journal of Epidemiology S18. (See abstract).
  5. Jacobsen SJ, et al. (1992). The association between water fluoridation and hip fracture among white women and men aged 65 years and older; a national ecologic study. Annals of Epidemiology 2: 617-626. (See abstract)
  6. Jacobsen SJ, et al. (1990). Regional variation in the incidence of hip fracture: US white women aged 65 years and olders. Journal of the American Medical Association 264(4): 500-2. (See excerpt)
  7. a) Jacqmin-Gadda H, et al. (1995). Fluorine concentration in drinking water and fractures in the elderly. Journal of the American Medical Association 273: 775-776 (letter). (See letter)
  8. b) Jacqmin-Gadda H, et al. (1998). Risk factors for fractures in the elderly. Epidemiology 9(4): 417-423. (An elaboration of the 1995 study referred to in the JAMA letter). (See abstract)
  9. Keller C. (1991) Fluorides in drinking water. Unpublished results. Discussed in: Gordon SL, Corbin SB. (1992). Summary of Workshop on Drinking Water Fluoride Influence on Hip Fracture on Bone Health. Osteoporosis International 2: 109-117. (See excerpt)
  10. Kurttio PN, et al. (1999). Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: A cohort analysis in Finland. American Journal of Epidemiology 150(8): 817-824. (See abstract)
  11. May DS, Wilson MG. (1992). Hip fractures in relation to water fluoridation: an ecologic analysis. Unpublished results. Discussed in: Gordon SL, Corbin SB. (1992). Summary of Workshop on Drinking Water Fluoride Influence on Hip Fracture on Bone Health. Osteoporosis International 2: 109-117. (See excerpt)
  12. Suarez-Almazor M, et al. (1993). The fluoridation of drinking water and hip fracture hospitalization rates in two Canadian communities. American Journal of Public Health 83: 689-693. (See abstract) The authors of this study conclude there is no association between fluoridation and hip fracture. However, their own data reveals a significant increase in hip fracture for men living in the fluoridated area. According to the study, “although a statistically significant increase in the risk of hip fracture was observed among Edmonton men, this increase was relatively small (RR=1.12).”

b) Studies investigating association between water-fluoride levels higher than fluoridated water (2 to 5 ppm) & bone/hip fracture.

  1. Alarcon-Herrera MT, et al. (2001). Well Water Fluoride, Dental fluorosis, Bone Fractures in the Guadiana Valley of Mexico. Fluoride 34(2): 139-149. (See study)
  2. Li Y, et al. (2001). Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16(5):932-9. (See abstract)
  3. Sowers MR, et al. (1986). The relationship of bone mass and fracture history to fluoride and calcium intake: a study of three communities. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44:889-98. (See abstract)
  4. Sowers M, et al. (1991). A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with differential fluoride exposure. American Journal of Epidemiology 133: 649-660. (See abstract)
  5. Sowers M, et al.(2005) Elevated serum fluoride concentra4tions in women are not related to fractures and bone mineral density. Journal of Nutrition 135:2247-52. (See abstract)
  6. c) Studies reporting no association, or a negative association, between fluoridated water & hip fracture. (back to top)
  7. (Note that in 3 of these 9 studies, an association was found between fluoride and some form of fracture – i.e. distal forearm. See notes and quotes below.)
  8. Arnala I, et al. (1986). Hip fracture incidence not affected by fluoridation. Osteofluorosis studied in Finland. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 57: 344-348. (See abstract)
  9. Cauley J. et al. (1995). Effects of fluoridated drinking water on bone mass and fractures: the study of osteoporotic fractures. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10(7): 1076-86. (See abstract)
  10. Feskanich D, et al. (1998). Use of toenail fluoride levels as an indicator for the risk of hip and forearm fractures in women. Epidemiology 9(4): 412-6. (See abstract)
  11. While this study didn’t find an association between water fluoride and hip fracture, it did find an association – albeit non-significant 1.6 (0.8-3.1) – between fluoride exposure and elevated rates of forearm fracture.
  12. Hillier S, et al. (2000). Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case control study. The Lancet 335: 265-2690. (See abstract)
  13. Jacobsen SJ, et al. (1993). Hip fracture incidence before and after the fluoridation of the public water supply, Rochester, Minnesota. American Journal of Public Health 83: 743-745. (See abstract)
  14. Karagas MR, et al. (1996). Patterns of fracture among the United States elderly: Geographic and fluoride effects. Annals of Epidemiology 6 (3): 209-216. (See abstract | See critique of study)
  15. As with Feskanich (1998) this study didn’t find an association between fluoridation & hip fracture, but it did find an association between fluoridation and distal forearm fracture, as well as proximal humerus fracture. “Independent of geographic effects, men in fluoridated areas had modestly higher rates of fractures of the distal forearm and proximal humerus than did men in nonfluoridated areas.”
  16. Lehmann R, et al. (1998). Drinking water fluoridation: Bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence. Bone 22: 273-278. (See abstract)
  17. Madans J, et al. (1983). The relationship between hip fracture and water fluoridation: an analysis of national data. American Journal of Public Health 73: 296-298. (See abstract)
  18. Phipps KR, et al. (2000). Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women. British Medical Journal 321: 860-4. (See abstract | See Study | See BMJ letter responding to study| See critique of study )
  19. This study reported a decreased incidence of hip fracture in fluoridated areas. However, as with Feskanich (1998) and Karagas (1996), the study also found an association between fluoridation and other types of fracture – in this case, wrist fracture. “There was a non-significant trend toward an increased risk of wrist fracture.”
  20. See also:
  21. Bernstein DS, et al. (1966). Prevalence of osteoporosis in high- and low-fluoride areas in North Dakota. Journal of the American Medical Association 198: 499-504. (See abstract & critique)
  22. Lee JR. (1993). Fluoridation & hip fracture. Fluoride 26(4): 274-277. (See paper)
  23. National Research Council. (2006). Musculoskeletal Effects. In: Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. (See chapter)

Fluoride & Bone Quality: Animal Studies

  1. Belanger LF, et al. (1958). Rachitomimetic effects of fluoride feeding on the skeletal tissues of growing pigs. American Journal of Pathology 34: 25-36.
  2. Burkhart JM, Jowsey J. (1968). Effect of variations in calcium intake on the skeleton of fluoride-fed kittens. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 72: 943-50.
  3. Chachra D, et al. (1999). The effect of fluoride treatment on bone mineral in rabbits. Calcified Tissue International 64: 345-51. (See abstract)
  4. Comar CL, et al. (1953). Effects of fluorine on calcium metabolism and bone growth in pigs. American Journal of Anatomy 92: 361-362.
  5. Kragstrup J, et al. (1984). Experimental osteo-fluorosis in the domestic pig: a histomorphometric study of vertebral trabecular bone. Journal of Dental Research 63: 885-889.
  6. Fratzl P, et al. (1996). Effects of sodium fluoride and alendronate on the bone mineral in minipigs: a small-angle X-ray scattering and backscattered electron imaging study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11(2):248-53. (See abstract)
  7. Golub L, et al. (1968). The effect of sodium fluoride on the rates of synthesis and degradation of bone collagen in tissue culture. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 129: 973-977.
  8. Guggenheim K, et al. (1976). The effect of fluoride on bone of rats fed diets deficient in calcium or phosphorus. Calcified Tissue Research 22: 9-17.
  9. Henrikson PA, et al. (1970). Fluoride and nutritional osteoporosis. Fluoride 3: 204-207.
  10. Ittel TH, et al. (1992). Effect of fluoride on aluminum-induced bone disease in rats with renal failure. Kidney International 41: 1340-1348. (See abstract)
  11. Jiang Y, et al. (1996). Effects of low-dose long-term sodium fluoride preventive treatment on rat bone mass and biomechanical properties. Calcified Tissue International 58: 30-9. (See abstract)
  12. Kierdorf U, et al. (1997). Fluoride content and mineralization of red deer (Cervus elaphus) antlers and pedicles from fluoride polluted and uncontaminated regions. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32: 222-227. (See abstract)
  13. Mosekilde L, et al. (1987). Compressive strength, ash weight, and volume of vertebral trabecular bone in experimental fluorosis in pigs. Calcified Tissue International 40: 318-22. (See abstract)
  14. Ream JL, et al. (1983). Fluoride ingestion during multiple pregnancies and lactations: microscopic observations on bone of the rat. Virchows Archiv B 44: 35-44. (See abstract)
  15. Ream LJ. (1981). The effects of short-term fluoride ingestion on bone formation and resorption in the rat femur. Cell and Tissue Research 221: 421-430. (See abstract)
  16. Robin JC, et al. (1980). Studies on osteoporosis III. Effect of estrogens and fluoride. Journal of Medicine 11: 1-14. (See abstract)
  17. Rockert H. (1963). X-ray absorption and x-ray fluorescence micro-analysis of mineralized tissue of rats which have ingested fluoridated water. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica 59: 32-38.
  18. Sharma YD. (1982). Effect on sodium fluoride on collagen cross-link precursors. Toxicology Letters 10: 97-100. (See abstract)
  19. Snow GR, Anderson C. (1986). Short-term chronic fluoride administration and trabecular bone remodeling in beagles: a pilot study. Calcified Tissue International 38(4):217-21. (See abstract)
  20. Susheela AK, Jha M. (1983). Cellular and histological characteristics of osteoid formed in experimental fluoride poisoning. Toxicology Letters 16: 35-40.
  21. Turner CH, et al. (1996). Reductions in bone strength after fluoride treatment are not reflected in tissue-level acoustic measurements. Bone 19(6):603-7. (See abstract)
  22. Turner RT, et al. (1989). The effects of fluoride on bone and implant histomorphometry in growing rats. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 4(4):477-84. (See abstract)
  23. Uslu B. (1983). Effect of fluoride on collagen synthesis in the rat. Research and Experimental Medicine 182(1):7-12. (See abstract)
  24. Walsh WR, Guzelsu N. (1993). The role of ions and mineral-organic interfacial bonding on the compressive properties of cortical bone. Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering 3: 75-84. (See abstract)
  25. Walsh WR, Guzelsu N. (1991). Fluoride ion effect on interfacial bonding and mechanical properties of bone. Journal of Biomechanics 24: 237.
  26. Zhang X, Qiu MC, Liu WB. (1994). [Effects of pollution with fluoride on bone dynamics of periosteum in iliac of domestic pigs]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 28(6):360-2. (See abstract)
  27. See also:
  28. Krook L, Minor RR. (1998). Fluoride and alkaline phosphatase. Fluoride 31: 177-82.

Fluoride & Bone Quality: Human Clinical Trials

  1. Balena R, et al. (1998). Effects of different regimens of sodium fluoride treatment for osteoporosis on the structure, remodeling and mineralization of bone. Osteoporosis International 8(5):428-35. (See abstract)
  2. Baylink DJ, Bernstein DS. (1967). The effects of fluoride therapy on metabolic bone disease. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 55: 51-85.
  3. Boivin G, et al. (1993). Relationship between bone fluoride content and histological evidence of calcification defects in osteoporotic women treated long term with sodium fluoride. Osteoporosis International 3(4):204-8. (See abstract)
  4. Cass RM, et al. (1966). New bone formation in osteoporosis following treatment with sodium fluoride. Archives of Internal Medicine 118: 111-116.
  5. Compston JE, et al. (1980). Osteomalacia developing during treatment of osteoporosis with sodium fluoride and vitamin D. British Medical Journal 281: 910-1.
  6. Fratzl P, et al. (1994). Abnormal bone mineralization after fluoride treatment in osteoporosis: a small-angle x-ray-scattering study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 9(10):1541-9. (See abstract)
  7. Inkovaara JA. (1991). Is fluoride treatment justified today? Calcified Tissue International 49 Suppl:S68-9. (See abstract)
  8. Jowsey J, et al. (1972). Effect of combined therapy with sodium fluoride, vitamin D and calcium in osteoporosis. American Journal of Medicine 53(1):43-9.
  9. Jowsey J, et al. (1968). Some results of the effect of fluoride on bone tissue in osteoporosis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 28: 869-874.
  10. Kragstrup J, et al. (1989). Effects of sodium fluoride, vitamin D, and calcium on cortical bone remodeling in osteoporotic patients. Calcified Tissue International 45: 337-41. (See abstract)
  11. Lindsay R. (1990). Fluoride and Bone – Quantity Versus Quality. Editorial. New England Journal of Medicine 322: 845-846. (See editorial)
  12. Lundy MW, et al. (1995). Histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies in placebo-treated versus fluoride-treated subjects. Osteoporosis International 5: 115-29. (See abstract)
  13. Patel S, et al. (1996). Fluoride pharmacokinetics and changes in lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density. Bone 19(6):651-5. (See abstract)
  14. Riggs BL. (1983). Treatment of osteoporosis with sodium fluoride: An appraisal. Bone and Mineral Research 2: 366-393.
  15. Schnitzler CM, et al. (1990). Iliac bone biopsies at the time of periarticular stress fractures during fluoride therapy: comparison with pretreatment biopsies. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5(2):141-52. (See abstract)
  16. Sogaard CH, et al. (1994). Marked decrease in trabecular bone quality after five years of sodium fluoride therapy–assessed by biomechanical testing of iliac crest bone biopsies in osteoporotic patients. Bone 15(4): 393-99. (See abstract)
  17. Vigorita VJ, Suda MK. (1983). The microscopic morphology of fluoride-induced bone. Clinical Orthopaedics 177:274-82. (See abstract)
  18. Zerwekh JE, et al. (1994). Effect of slow-release sodium fluoride on cancellous bone histology and connectivity in osteoporosis. Bone 15: 691-9. (See abstract)
  19. See also:
  20. Krook L, Minor RR. (1998). Fluoride and alkaline phosphatase. Fluoride 31: 177-82.

Fluoride Concentrations in Human Bone

  1. Alhava EM, et al. (1980). The Effect of Drinking Water Fluoridation on the Fluoride Content, Strength and Mineral Density of Human Bone. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 51: 413-420.
  2. Bohatyrewicz A. (2001). Bone fluoride in proximal femur fractures. Fluoride 34: 227-235.
  3. Arnala I, et al. (1985). Effects of fluoride on bone in Finland. Histomorphometry of cadaver bone from low and high fluoride areas. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 56(2):161-6.
  4. Boivin G, et al. (1988). Fluoride content in human iliac bone: results in controls, patients with fluorosis, and osteoporotic patients treated with fluoride. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 3(5):497-502.
  5. Call RA, et al. (1965). Histological and chemical studies in man on effects of fluoride. Public Health Reports 80: 529-538.
  6. Charen J, et al. (1979). Bone fluoride concentrations associated with fluoridated drinking water. Calcified Tissue International 27(2):95-9.
  7. Cohen-Solal ME, et al. (2002). Fluoride and strontium accumulation in bone does not correlate with osteoid tissue in dialysis patients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 17: 449–454.
  8. Eble DM, et al. (1992). Fluoride concentrations in human and rat bone. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 52: 288-291.
  9. Glock GE, et al. (1941). The retention and elimination of fluoride in bones. Biochemical Journal 35: 1235-1239.
  10. Hefti A, Marthaler TM. (1981). Bone fluoride concentrations after 16 years of drinking water fluoridation. Caries Research 15(1):85-9.
  11. Jackson D, Weidman SM. (1958). Fluorine in human bone related to age and the water supply of different regions. Journal of Pathological Bacteriology 76: 451-459.
  12. Kuo HC, Stamm JW. (1974). Fluoride levels in human rib bone: a preliminary study. Canadian Journal of Public Health 65(5):359-61.
  13. National Research Council. (2006). Pharmacokinetics of Fluoride. In: Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. (See chapter)
  14. Ng AHM, et al. (2004). Association between fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and bone quality in renal osteodystrophy. Bone 34: 216-224.
  15. Parkins FM, et al. (1974). Relationships of human plasma fluoride and bone fluoride to age. Calcified Tissue Research 16: 335-338.
  16. Richards A, et al. (1994). Normal age-related changes in fluoride content of vertebral trabecular bone – Relation to bone quality. Bone 15: 21-26.
  17. Smith FA, et al. (1953). Age increase and fluoride content in human bone. (abstract). Federation Proceedings 12: 368.
  18. Stein ID, Granik G. (1980). Human vertebral bone: Relation of strength, porosity, and mineralization to fluoride content. Calcified Tissue International 32: 189-194.
  19. Sogaard CH, et al. (1994). Marked decrease in trabecular bone quality after five years of sodium fluoride therapy–assessed by biomechanical testing of iliac crest bone biopsies in osteoporotic patients. Bone 15(4): 393-99.
  20. Wix P, Mohamedally SM. (1980). The significance of age-dependent fluoride accumulation in bone in relation to daily intake of fluoride. Fluoride 13: 100-104.
  21. Zipkin L, et al. (1958). Fluoride deposition in human bones after prolonged ingestion of fluoride in drinking water. US Public Health Reports 73:732-740.

Factors which Increase Accumulation of Fluoride in Bone: Kidney Disease

  1. Adams PH, Jowsey J. (1965). Sodium Fluoride in the Treatment of Osteoporosis and Other Bone Diseases. Annals of Internal Medicine 63(6): 1151-1155. (See excerpt)
  2. Arnala I, et al. (1985). Effects of fluoride on bone in Finland. Histomorphometry of cadaver bone from low and high fluoride areas. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 56(2):161-6.
  3. Call RA, et al. (1965). Histological and chemical studies in man on effects of fluoride. Public Health Reports 80: 529-538.
  4. Gerster JC, et al. (1983). Bilateral fractures of femoral neck in patients with moderate renal failure receiving fluoride for spinal osteoporosis. British Medical Journal (Clin Res Ed) 287(6394):723-5. (See abstract)
  5. Hefti A, Marthaler TM. (1981). Bone fluoride concentrations after 16 years of drinking water fluoridation. Caries Research 15(1):85-9.
  6. Johnson W, et al. (1979). Fluoridation and bone disease in renal patients. In: E Johansen, DR Taves, TO Olsen, Eds. Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides. AAAS Selected Symposium. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. pp. 275-293. (See extended excerpt)
  7. Juncos LI, Donadio JV Jr. (1972). Renal failure and fluorosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 222(7):783-5. (See abstract)
  8. Kono K, et al. (1984). Urinary fluoride excretion in fluoride exposed workers with diminished renal function. Industrial Health 22(1):33-40. (See abstract)
  9. Linsman JF, McMurray CA. (1943). Fluoride osteosclerosis from drinking water. Radiology 40: 474- 484.
  10. Ng AHM, et al. (2004). Association between fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and bone quality in renal osteodystrophy. Bone 34: 216-224. (See abstract)
  11. Noel C, et al. (1985). [Risk of bone disease as a result of fluoride intake in chronic renal insufficiency]. (Article in French). Nephrologie 1985;6(4):181-5. (See abstract)
  12. Spak CJ, et al. (1985). Renal clearance of fluoride in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 75(3):575-9. (See abstract)
  13. Turner CH, et al. (1996). High fluoride intakes cause osteomalacia and diminished bone strength in rats with renal deficiency. Bone 19(6):595-601.(See abstract)
  14. Welsch M, et al. (1990). [Iatrogenic fluorosis. 2 cases]. Therapie 45(5):419-22. (See abstract)

Factors which Increase Accumulation of Fluoride in Bone: Nutritional Deficiencies

  1. Beary DF. (1969). The effects of fluoride and low calcium on the physical properties of the rat femur. The Anatomical Record 164: 305-316.
  2. Jowsey J, et al. (1972). Effect of combined therapy with sodium fluoride, vitamin D and calcium in osteoporosis. American Journal of Medicine 53(1):43-9.
  3. Li G, Ren L. (1997). [Effects of excess fluoride on bone turnover under conditions of diet with different calcium contents] [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 26(5):277-80. (See abstract)
  4. Likimani S, et al. (1992). The effects of protein deficiency and fluoride on bone mineral content of rat tibia. Calcified Tissue International 50(2):157-64. (See abstract)
  5. Marier JR, et al. (1963). Accumulation of skeletal fluoride and its implications. Archives of Environmental Health 6: 664-671.
  6. Riggins RS, et al. (1976). The effect of fluoride supplementation on the strength of osteopenic bone. Clinical Orthopaedics (114):352-7.
  7. Riggins RS, et al. (1974). The effects of sodium fluoride on bone breaking strength. Calcified Tissue Research 14: 283-289.
  8. Teotia M, Teotia SP, Singh KP. (1998). Endemic chronic fluoride toxicity and dietary calcium deficiency interaction syndromes of metabolic bone disease and deformities in India: year 2000. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 65(3):371-81. (See abstract)

SOURCE: http://www.slweb.org/bibliography.html#bone

About fluoridationfree101

I'm a webmaster, science researcher, mathematician and nutritionist who has beat the ravages of chemical sensitivities, especially the harm done to my health by fluoride substances.
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